Marie Curie

                               Marie Curie
                             (1867–1934)


The scientist Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only person to win the prize in two different fields: physics and chemistry.
Maria Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. Curie's efforts with her husband Pierre Curie led to the discovery of polonium and radio and, after Pierre's death, the further development of X-rays. He died on July 4, 1934.

Early life

 Her parents were teachers and she was the youngest of five children, following the brothers Zosia, Józef, Bronya and Hela. As a child Curie took after his father, Wladyslaw, an instructor of math and physics. He had a bright and curious mind and excelled in school. But the tragedy came early, and when he was only 10 , Curie lost his mother, Bronislawa, to tuberculosis.
 Curie was not able to attend the University of Warsaw only for men. Instead he continued his education at the "floating university" of Warsaw.
For about five years, Curie worked as a tutor and as a governess. In 1891, Curie finally went to Paris where he enrolled at the Sorbonne in Paris. She went to her studies, but this dedication had a personal cost. With little money, Curie survived with bread and tea with butter, and his health sometimes suffered because of his poor diet.
Curie completed his master's degree in physics in 1893 and obtained another degree in mathematics the following year. Around this time, he received a commission to study different types of steel and their magnetic properties. Curie needed a laboratory to work, and a colleague introduced her to the French physicist Pierre Curie. A romance developed between the brilliant pair, and they became a dynamic scientific duo. The marriage was married on July 26, 1895.

Discoveries
Marie and Pierre Curie were scientists dedicated to each other. She was fascinated by the work of Henri Becquerel, a French physicist who discovered that uranium emitted lightning.
Curie took Becquerel's work a few steps further. He discovered that the rays remained constant, regardless of the condition or form of uranium. The rays, she theorized, came from the atomic structure of the element. This revolutionary idea created the field of atomic physics and Curie himself coined the word radioactivity to describe phenomena. Marie and Pierre had a daughter, Irene, in 1897.
 Working with the mineral pitchblende, the pair discovered a new radioactive element in 1898. They named the polonium element after the birthplace of Marie, Poland. They also detected the presence of other radioactive material in the pitchblende, and called it radio. In 1902, the Curies announced that they had produced a decimogram of pure radium, demonstrating its existence as a unique chemical element.
Marie Curie made history in 1903 when she became the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics. She won the prestigious honor along with her husband and Henri Becquerel, for their work in radioactivity. They received a second son, daughter Eve, the following year.
In 1906, Marie suffered a tremendous loss. Her husband Pierre was murdered in Paris after he accidentally stepped in front of a horse-drawn carriage. In spite of her tremendous grief, she took over her position as professor at the Sorbonne, becoming the first female professor of the institution.
Curie received another great honor in 1911, winning his second Nobel Prize, this time in chemistry. He was selected for his radio and polonium discovery, and became the first scientist to win two Nobel prizes.
When World War I broke out in 1914, Curie devoted his time and resources to helping the cause. She defended the use of portable x-ray machines in the field, and these medical vehicles earned the nickname "Little Curies." After the war, Curie used his celebrity to advance his research ...

Final days and legacy

All his years of working with radioactive materials had an impact on Curie's health. She was known for carrying radio test tubes in the pocket of her lab coat. In 1934, Curie went to the Sancellemoz Sanatorium in Passy, France, to try to rest and regain his strength. He died there on July 4, 1934, of aplastic anemia, which may be caused by prolonged exposure to radiation.
 She is the most famous scientist of all time, and has received numerous posthumous honors. In 1995, the remains of her and her husband were buried in the Panthéon of Paris, Curie became the first and only woman to settle there.
Curie also conveyed his love of science to the next generation ...
                            

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